Sperm cells are produced in the male sex organ called

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The glands are controlled directly by stimulation from the nervous system as well as sperm cells are produced in the male sex organ called chemical receptors in the blood and hormones produced by other glands. By regulating the functions of organs in the body, these glands help to maintain the body’s homeostasis. Now please check your email to confirm your subscription. We hate spam as much as you do.

Anatomy of the Endocrine System Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is a part of the brain located superior and anterior to the brain stem and inferior to the thalamus. All of the releasing and inhibiting hormones affect the function of the anterior pituitary gland. TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone. GHRH and GHIH work to regulate the release of growth hormone—GHRH stimulates growth hormone release, GHIH inhibits its release.

GnRH stimulates the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone while CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Pituitary Gland The pituitary gland, also known as the hypophysis, is a small pea-sized lump of tissue connected to the inferior portion of the hypothalamus of the brain. Many blood vessels surround the pituitary gland to carry the hormones it releases throughout the body. Posterior Pituitary The posterior pituitary gland is actually not glandular tissue at all, but nervous tissue instead. The posterior pituitary is a small extension of the hypothalamus through which the axons of some of the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus extend. Oxytocin triggers uterine contractions during childbirth and the release of milk during breastfeeding. Anterior Pituitary The anterior pituitary gland is the true glandular part of the pituitary gland.

The function of the anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the releasing and inhibiting hormones of the hypothalamus. Pineal Gland The pineal gland is a small pinecone-shaped mass of glandular tissue found just posterior to the thalamus of the brain. The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin that helps to regulate the human sleep-wake cycle known as the circadian rhythm. The activity of the pineal gland is inhibited by stimulation from the photoreceptors of the retina. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck and wrapped around the lateral sides of the trachea. Calcitonin is released when calcium ion levels in the blood rise above a certain set point. Calcitonin functions to reduce the concentration of calcium ions in the blood by aiding the absorption of calcium into the matrix of bones.

The hormones T3 and T4 work together to regulate the body’s metabolic rate. Increased levels of T3 and T4 lead to increased cellular activity and energy usage in the body. Parathyroid Glands The parathyroid glands are 4 small masses of glandular tissue found on the posterior side of the thyroid gland. PTH is released from the parathyroid glands when calcium ion levels in the blood drop below a set point. Adrenal Glands The adrenal glands are a pair of roughly triangular glands found immediately superior to the kidneys. The adrenal glands are each made of 2 distinct layers, each with their own unique functions: the outer adrenal cortex and inner adrenal medulla. Adrenal cortex The adrenal cortex produces many cortical hormones in 3 classes: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens.

Glucocorticoids have many diverse functions, including the breakdown of proteins and lipids to produce glucose. Glucocorticoids also function to reduce inflammation and immune response. Mineralocorticoids, as their name suggests, are a group of hormones that help to regulate the concentration of mineral ions in the body. Androgens, such as testosterone, are produced at low levels in the adrenal cortex to regulate the growth and activity of cells that are receptive to male hormones.

In adult males, the amount of androgens produced by the testes is many times greater than the amount produced by the adrenal cortex, leading to the appearance of male secondary sex characteristics. Adrenal medulla The adrenal medulla produces the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine under stimulation by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Pancreas The pancreas is a large gland located in the abdominal cavity just inferior and posterior to the stomach. The pancreas is considered to be a heterocrine gland as it contains both endocrine and exocrine tissue. Gonads The gonads—ovaries in females and testes in males—are responsible for producing the sex hormones of the body.